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SHIKHAR Mains 2023 Day 41 Model Answer English

Updated : 11th Aug 2023
SHIKHAR Mains 2023 Day 41 Model Answer English

Q1: Discuss India's Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy (STIP 2020).

भारत की विज्ञान, प्रौद्योगिकी और नवाचार नीति (STIP 2020) पर चर्चा करें।


  • Give a brief introduction about STIP.
  • Write about STIP elaborately.
  • Conclude with the importance of STIP.


STIP 2020 is the collective aspiration to ensure that we get the benefits of our national investments in science and technology. It is a comprehensive policy framework the guides & promotes investment in Science & Technology.

Key features of STIP are:

  1. Objective
  • STIP 2020 by way of its decentralized, bottom-up, and inclusive design process aims to restrategize priorities, sectoral focus, and methods of research and technology development for larger socio-economic welfare.
  1. STI Observatory and Centralised Database
  • STIP establishes a National STI Observatory, a central data repository for STI-related information. It includes a centralized database platform for financial schemes, programs, and incentives. The Observatory operates through coordinated, distributed, and interoperable networks among stakeholders.
  1. Open Science Framework
  • An Open Science Framework will be established for universal access to scientific data and knowledge in India's STI ecosystem. Publicly-funded research data will be accessible to all under FAIR principles. A portal named Indian Science and Technology Archive of Research (INDSTA) will offer access to research outputs.
  1. STU Education to be made more inclusive
  • Online learning platforms using ICT will boost accessibility and research across levels. Teaching-learning centers (TLCs) will enhance faculty skills and education quality. Engaged Universities will foster interdisciplinary research for community solutions. Higher Education Research Centres (HERC) and Collaborative Research Centres (CRC) will provide research insights to policymakers and stakeholders.
  1. Increasing Investments
  • With an aim to expand the financial landscape of the STI ecosystem, each department/ ministry in the central, the state and the local governments, PSUs, private sector companies and startups will set up an STI unit with a minimum earmarked budget to pursue STI activities. 
  • Each State will earmark a percentage of the state allocation for STI-related activities under a separate budget head.
  1. Translational Research and Promotion of Innovation
  • An institutional architecture to integrate Traditional Knowledge Systems (TKS) and grassroots innovation into the overall education, research and innovation system will be established. 
  1. Technology self-reliance and indigenization 
  • A Technology Support Framework will be created to facilitate this development. A Strategic Technology Board (STB) will be constituted to act as a link connecting different strategic departments. 
  1. Inclusivity an integral part of STIP
  • An inclusive culture will be facilitated through equal opportunity for women along with candidates from rural- remote areas, marginalised communities, LGBTQ+ Communities and differently-abled individuals including Divyangjans.
  1. International Engagement
  • Appropriate facilitating channels will be created for remote contribution as well. 
  • An engagement portal exclusively for the Indian scientific diaspora will be created. ‘S&T for Diplomacy’ will be complemented with Diplomacy for S&T ’. 
  1. STI Policy Institute
  • It will develop long term capacity building programs for STI policy through training and fellowships. 
  • An implementation strategy and roadmap will be devised for STI policy and programs along with continuous monitoring and timely evaluation mechanisms. 

The Science, Technology and Innovation Policy envisions an Atmanirbhar Bharat, aiming for technological self-reliance and a top global scientific standing. It emphasizes nurturing human capital, doubling researcher numbers and R&D investment every 5 years. The policy aspires for global competitiveness, fostering individual and institutional excellence in STI to achieve international recognition within a decade.



Q2: प्रौद्योगिकी हस्तांतरण क्या है? भारत-अमेरिका जेट इंजन प्रौद्योगिकी हस्तांतरण पर टिप्पणी कीजिए।
What is transfer of technology? Comment on India - USA Jet engine technology transfer.


  • Define Transfer of Technology in introduction. 

  • Then comment on the significance of India-USA technology transfer deal. 

  • Conclude with highlighting the strategic importance of technology transfer. 


Transfer of technology is a process of transferring technology (innovations, knowledge and techniques) from one organisation or country to another organisation or country through formal or informal channels. Formal channels include FDI, licensing, trade, foreign patenting etc. whereas informal channels include imitation and counterfeiting.

Recently, India has announced a significant agreement between the American multinational corporation General Electric (GE) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), during Indian PM's state visit to the US. The deal involves the transfer of critical jet engine technologies and the manufacturing of GE's F414 engine for India's indigenous Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas Mk2.

Transfer of technology includes:

  • Identifying new Technologies.

  • Protecting Technologies Through Patents and copyrights.

  • Forming and transferring Development and commercialization strategies such as marketing and licensing to existing private sector companies or creating new start up companies based on Technology.

  • For instance, Rafael deal with France involves Transfer of Technology for manufacturing Medium Multirole Combat Aircrafts, which India lacks currently.

Significance of India-US Jet Engine Deal:

  • Self-reliance in Critical Technologies:

    • Manufacturing engines for combat aircraft requires advanced technology and metallurgy, which only US, Russia, UK and France have mastered. 

    • India, despite its push for self-reliance in critical technologies, including cryogenic rocket engines, has not been able to join this list. 

    • The countries that have the technology to manufacture advanced engines for fighter aircraft have been traditionally unwilling to share them which is also why the deal is pathbreaking.

  • A Significant Component of iCET: The agreement for the transfer of technology was discussed in the talks between India's Defence Minister and the US Secretary of Defence earlier in June 2023 and was a key highlight of India's National Security Advisor’s meeting with his US counterpart when the US-India iCET was operationalized.


Focus Areas of ICET

  • Establishing a research agency partnership to enhance collaboration in areas such as AI Innovation ecosystem.

  • Defense Industrial & Technological Cooperation and Defense Startups.

  • Cooperation in Human Space Flight.

  • semiconductor ecosystem development.

  • Advances in 5G and 6G technologies.

  • Adoption of Open RAN network technology in India.


  • Development Efforts by DRDO:

    • The DRDO's Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) initiated the development of the GTX-37 engine for the LCA, followed by the ambitious Kaveri engine project in 1989.

    • Despite the development of 9 full prototype engines and 4 core engines and extensive testing, the engines did not meet the requirements for fighter aircraft making this deal crucial for its defence capabilities.

  •  End of Technology Denial Regime:

    • This pact finally lays to rest what former PM of India (in 2008) had described in as the “technology denial regime” imposed on India by the West, led by the US.

    • The Nuclear Suppliers’ Group’s waiver to the Indo-US nuclear deal marked the end of India’s decades long isolation from the nuclear technology.

    • This jet engine technology transfer agreement is another one of the important milestones in this journey.

Aside from GE, India has been talking to other global jet engine makers for technology transfer such as Safran SA of France and Rolls-Royce of the United Kingdom for the AMCA.

Transfer of technology and strategic partnerships are integral components of modern economies and international relations. They facilitate the exchange and utilization of knowledge, resources, and expertise, leading to technological progress, economic development, and collaborative problem-solving on a global scale.