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SHIKHAR Mains 2023 Day 40 Model Answer English

Updated : 7th Aug 2023
SHIKHAR Mains 2023 Day 40 Model Answer English

Q1: बिम्सटेक क्या है? भारत के लिए इसके महत्व पर चर्चा कीजिए।

What is BIMSTEC? Discuss its significance for India.      8 Marks 



  • In introduction, give a brief background of the BIMSTEC. 

  • Further explain the significance of BIMSTEC for India. 



The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is a regional organization that was established on 06 June 1997 with the signing of the Bangkok Declaration. Initially known as BIST-EC (Bangladesh-India-Sri Lanka-Thailand Economic Cooperation), the organisation is now known as BIMSTEC and comprises seven Member States with the admission of Myanmar on 22 December 1997, and Bhutan and Nepal in February 2004.

Significance of BIMSTEC for India- 

  • Strategic- BIMSTEC is key to fulfill the country’s strategic aspiration to cater the wider concept of Indo-Pacific and and Indian ocean community. 

  • Economic- Connectivity with Southeast Asian markets, presence of important sea lanes of communications and hydrocarbon reserves in bay of bengal. 

  • Regional Cooperation- BIMSTEC acts as a bridge between South and SOutheast Asia, making a natural platform to fulfill our key foreign policy priorities of “Neighbourhood First” and “Act East”. 

  • Security- BIMSTEC presents an opportunity to enhance India’s Blue Economy and Maritime Security through regional cooperation. 

  • To counter Chinese influence due to BRI. 


Q2: रूस और संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका के बीच शत्रुता के बावजूद, भारत अपने हितों को प्राथमिकता देते हुए दोनों देशों के साथ अपने संबंधों को सफलतापूर्वक बनाए रखता है। चर्चा कीजिए।

Despite hostility between Russia and USA, India successfully maintain its relationship with both the countries while prioritising its own interests. Discuss.


  • Give a brief overview of the differences in USA-Russia relationship.

  • Bring out India’s independence in foreign policy in this context by giving suitable examples.

  • Highlight the importance of maintaining good relations with both the USA and Russia.

  • Conclude accordingly.



Presently, USA-Russia relationship stands apart largely due to differences over issues such as nuclear disarmament, Iran crisis, Ukrainian crisis, Afghan fiasco, geopolitics of the Indo-Pacific and climate negotiation. These differences are promoting strategic apprehension from both the sides and contributing to the ongoing strategic impasse. 


India has good relations with both Russia and the US and siding with one of these countries could cost India its relationship with the other. However, that has not been the case so far as India seems to have taken a neutral approach and has maintained its relationship with Russia and the US independent of each other by not letting either of them dictate its foreign policy, as witnessed recently:


India’s relations with Russia:

  • Despite the growing tensions between the USA and Russia, India hosted the Russian President for the Indo-Russian annual bilateral summit in 2021. Also, India and Russia held their first ever 2+2 Ministerial dialogue, indicating that Russia is as important to India as its QUAD partners.

  • Notwithstanding the possibility of American sanctions through CAATSA, India not only decided to go ahead with the deal for S-400 missile defence systems, but also finalized a fresh deal worth INR 5,000 crores for the manufacture of 7.5 lakh AK 203 Russian assault rifles.

  • Similarly, India abstained from the procedural vote at the UNSC ahead of a meeting to discuss the current tensions around Ukraine and called for a peaceful resolution, keeping in mind the interests of all parties involved.


India’s relations with USA:

  • In spite of Russia’s staunch disapproval, India has been working closely with the US in the Indo-Pacific through regular engagements within and outside the QUAD. It shows that India can primarily act according to its own interests.

  • The enhanced partnership between Russia and China has raised doubts amongst policymakers in India about Russia’s effectiveness in balancing China. Therefore, India is now fast-tracking manifold its multifaceted cooperation with the US, mainly to balance a belligerent China.

  • India has a robust defence partnership with the US through institutional arrangements such as the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Understanding (LEMOA), Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA), Industrial Security Annex (ISA), Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA), Defense Technology Trade Initiative (DTTI). Further, India has also accorded the status of a ‘Major Defence Partner’ to the USA.


Both the USA and Russia as veto-wielding powers in the United Nations support India’s bid for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council as well as support India’s entry into the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Since a permanent seat in the UNSC and NSG membership are seen as pivotal to

India’s aspirations of projecting itself as a major global power, a strategic relationship with the USA

and Russia becomes even more paramount. India has successfully maintained ties with its major

strategic partners, and is making its own foreign policy decisions irrespective of the stance of Russia

or the USA.